Monticello and the University
of Virginia in Charlottesville (1987)
United States of America
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Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), author of the American Declaration of Independence and third president of the United States, was also a talented architect of neoclassical buildings. He designed Monticello (1769–1809), his plantation home, and his ideal 'academical village' (1817–26), which is still the heart of the University of Virginia. Jefferson's use of an architectural vocabulary based upon classical antiquity symbolizes both the aspirations of the new American republic as the inheritor of European tradition and the cultural experimentation that could be expected as the country matured.
Jefferson's most noteworthy achievement at the convention was his bill to establish religious freedom and to ensure the separation of church and state. The bill guaranteed, in Jefferson's own words, “that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever.”
|As mentioned above, Jefferson was the third president of the
United States (elected for two terms). He. was opposed to all forms of tyranny.
Jefferson and his friend Adams, both of whom had played such great parts in the winning of independence, died on Independence Day, July 4, 1826. Jefferson left detailed instructions for his burial in the graveyard of his estate. A simple monument was to mark his resting place. He specified that the monument was to be made of coarse stone so that “no one might be tempted hereafter to destroy it for the value of the materials.” He wrote his own epitaph:
Here was buried
Author of the Declaration of American Independence
Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom
And Father of the University of Virginia
These achievements were to be inscribed on the monument, and “not a word more ... because by these, as testimonials that I have lived, I wish most to be remembered.” Jefferson's wishes were carried out, but vandals later overturned and broke the stone. A careful reproduction now marks Jefferson's grave.
Thomas Jefferson Memorial, national memorial authorized in 1934. Located in Washington, D.C., in East Potomac Park, the memorial honors United States president Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809). The building is a graceful rotunda, or circular structure, encircled by a colonnade of 26 Ionic columns and capped with a domed ceiling. A broad flight of steps leads up to a portico, or entrance, to the memorial. The white marble building was designed by American architect John Russell Pope in the Roman style, in keeping with Jefferson’s love of classical architecture. Construction began in 1939 and the memorial was dedicated in 1943. Japanese cherry trees surrounding the building decorate the memorial site with pink blossoms for two weeks every spring. The interior of the memorial features a bronze statue of a standing Jefferson facing the White House.
|| The statue was designed by American sculptor Rudolph Evans and is 5.8 m (19.0 ft) high, resting on a black granite pedestal 1.8 m (6.0 ft) high.
Jefferson’s thoughts on independence and freedom are inscribed on panels of white Georgia marble. The inscriptions are from the Declaration of Independence, which Jefferson wrote, and from his personal letters and legal documents.
On a circular band around the dome of the rotunda is etched the quotation, “I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.” (See the credo-stamp above).
Above the interior entrance to the memorial is a sculptured bas-relief by A. A. Weinman of the members of the Continental Congress committee who wrote the Declaration of Independence with Jefferson.
Sources and links:
Microsoft Encarta 2002.
Other World Heritage Sites in USA (on this site). Inactive links are not described on stamps. Please refer to the UNESCO-listing, section United States for further information about such sites.
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Revised 03 aug 2006