Struve Geodetic Arc (2005)
Russia

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The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped establish the exact size and shape of our planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks. 

Russia 1964. Death centenary of Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864). 

So far it has been impossible to find any stamps featuring Struve's Geodetic Arc, only stamps from the locations, but with no relation to the property as such. Instead I have found the following information about Struve, and the Soviet stamp commemorating his death centenary. 

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve was born in Altona, then part of Denmark, in what is now Germany, to Jacob Struve (1755-1841). He was to become the second of an entire family of astronomers through five generations. To avoid military service, Struve's father, Jacob, moved from Napoleonic Germany to Latvia, then the Livonian province of Imperial Russia. 

  • Russia 1964. Death centenary of Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864). 
In 1808 Struve entered the University of Tartu (Estonia), where he first studied philology, but soon turned his attention to astronomy. From 1813 to 1820 he taught at the university and observed at Dorpat Observatory in Tartu, occupied with research on double stars and geodesy until 1839, when he founded and became director of the new Pulkovo Observatory near St. Petersburg. 
  • Russia 1989. Pulkovo Observatory, 150th anniversary of foundation. 

His Danish-German name was at the same changed to Vasily Yakovlevich Struve, which also appears on the above stamp [V. Ya. Struve in Cyrillic characters]. 

Russia 1989. Pulkovo Observatory, 150th anniversary of foundation.

The countries included in the World Heritage Property of "Struve's Geodetic Arc" are: Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Sweden, and Ukraine. I have been informed that some (but not all) of these countries are preparing release of stamps in 2006 and later, pertaining to "their part" of the property. 

The Russian location of the point for Struve Geodetic Arc is in Kingisepp District, Leningrad Oblast [St. Petersburg Region], formerly known as Yamburg or Yama. It lies along the Luga River, c. 137 km west of St. Petersburg, 20 km east of Narva in Estonia, and 49 km south of the Gulf of Finland. In 1922 it was renamed by the Bolsheviks after the Estonian Communist Leader Viktor Kingissepp. It should not be confused with the Estonian town of Kuressaare, formerly Kingissepa. 

As an aside, Viktor Kingisepp has been featured on a Soviet stamp, USSR 1988, Michel #5810, Scott # 5649 (Birth Centenary of V.E. Kingisepp). 

In its justification for inscription the UNESCO states that Struve's Geodetic Arc is the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian, helping in the establishment of the exact size and shape of the world exhibits an important step in the development of earth sciences. It is also an extraordinary example for interchange of human values in the form of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries. It is at the same time an example for collaboration between monarchs of different powers, for a scientific cause.

The Struve Geodetic Arc is undoubtedly an outstanding example of technological ensemble presenting the triangulation points of the measuring of the meridian, being the non movable and non tangible part of the measuring technology.

The measuring of the arc and its results are directly associated with men wondering about his world, its shape and size. It is linked with Sir Isaac Newton's theory that the world is not an exact sphere.

Sources and links:

Many thanks to Mr. Leonards Naglis (Latvia) for all help and support. 

Other World Heritage Sites in Russia (on this web site). Inactive links are not described on stamps. Please refer to the UNESCO-listing, Russia-section, for further information on such sites. 

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Revised 21 jul 2006  
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