Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (1980)
Pakistan

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UNESCO (France) 1980. Moenjodaro, Pakistan.

The ruins of the huge city of Moenjodaro – built entirely of unbaked brick in the 3rd millennium B.C. – lie in the Indus valley. 

The acropolis, set on high embankments, the ramparts, and the lower town, which is laid out according to strict rules, provide evidence of an early system of town planning. 

  • UNESCO (France) 1980. Moenjodaro, Pakistan. 

Moenjodaro [Mohenjo-Daro] is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley, a Harappan civilization (c. 2500 - 1700 BC), south of Larkana, Pakistan. Excavated in the 1920s by the British archaeologist Sir John Marshall (1876-1958), Mohenjo-Daro covers more than 80 hectares (200 acres) and consists of two mounds separated by an unoccupied area. A major city and commercial center during the Bronze Age, it is the largest Indus Valley settlement. 

Pakistan 1976. Strip of five UNESCO-stamps with a panoramic view of the ruins at Moenjodaro.

The small western mound, or “citadel,” has several public buildings, which may have been surrounded by a wall. Early excavators took these buildings for a granary, assembly hall, college, and public bath, but later studies have cast doubt on that conclusion. 

The larger eastern mound consists of large blocks of brick buildings, separated by streets and housing the inhabitants' residences and workshops. Both mounds yielded an abundance of Harappan artifacts. 

  • Pakistan 1976. UNESCO-stamp for the benefit of saving Moenjodaro. The stamp shows an aerial view of the ruins, and a depiction of a bull. 

Pakistan 1976. UNESCO-stamp for the benefit of saving Moenjodaro.  The stamp shows an aerial view of the ruins and a depiction of a bull.

Map of the Indus Valley, with Mohenjo-Daro [Moenjodaro] marked in the southern part of the delta.

Harappa is a locality in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan, which dates back to before 2000 BC. Other than the Moenjodaro-site, archaeologists have found evidence of a possible link between Indian and Sumerian cultures. 

In the Indus valley area now known as Pakistan, an advanced Bronze Age culture rose up about 2500 bc and lasted for nearly 1000 years. Scholars do not know how it began or whether its people were related to those who now occupy Southwest Asia. Nomadic tribes called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley, probably from the region north of the Caspian Sea, in 1500 bc. The Aryan culture became dominant in the area, eclipsing that of its predecessors.

  • Map of the Indus Valley, with Mohenjo-Daro marked in the southern part of the delta. 

There are a large number of Pakistani stamps from Moenjodaro; those shown here are just meant to whet the appetite for a very interesting subject and collecting area. 

Etymology of the name PAKISTAN
The name 'Pakistan' is composed of the initial letters in Punjab, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Sind, and the last part of Beluchistan. The I was later added to the name since in Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, -istan refers to "land of" while "pak" means 'pure'. The name Pakistan may thus be translated as "The Land of the Pure". Officially, the nation was founded as the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and was renamed as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1957. 

Sources and links:

Other World Heritage Sites in Pakistan (on this website). Inactive links are not described on stamps. Please refer to the UNESCO-listing, Pakistan Section, for further information on the individual properties. 

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Revised 12 nov 2006  
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